Archive for December, 2014

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Saturday, December 20th, 2014

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Career in Interior designing

Friday, December 5th, 2014
Space for residential and commercial places is shrinking due to rapid urbanisation. This anomalous situation calls for professional help to make the living and working space more comfortable, beautiful and practical. Earlier, it was the task of an architect to do the entire exteriors along with the interiors of a house, office or any other functionally useful edifice. Now-a-days people have become more and more particular about the designs and the layout of the living or working area. This has led to an increasing requirement for professionals in interior designing.

As an interior designer, you will be trained to design exclusive furniture artefacts and fittings besides learning managerial skills. With the help of a course in interior designing, you will come out with a professional designing solution that is efficient, eye-catching and at the same time safe.

The basic job of an interior designer is to make optimal utilisation of available space. Further, you have to make the space more functional and in accordance with the taste and budget of the client. Besides visualising and conceptualising the designs for new structures, interior designers also plan the interiors of existing structures that are undergoing renovation or extension.

Step-by-Step

The popularity of interior designing as a discipline is not confined to urban cities but it has rapidly spread to small town and cities across the nation. This is largely because of the changing lifestyle of people and their want to customise their residence with the help of an expert who can understand their taste and preference.

Numerous reputed institutions all over India are offering study programs in interior designing. The basic qualification to get into most of these programs is a 10+2. Moreover, you will also have to get through an entrance examination that judges your drawing and design skills. It is advisable to prepare a portfolio of your creative work and display it at the time of admission to these study programs.

Architecture and design colleges generally offer study programs in interior designing. Most of these are diploma programs. You can also pursue an interior design course from a polytechnic or a private institution that provides specialisation in a particular area of interior designing.

Furthermore, entry into this profession is also possible through other areas of study such as graduation in architecture, fine arts, design, environment planning or a post-graduate program in a similar field.

Specialisation in a particular area of interior designing can be done depending on your choice. For example; you can excel in business design, residential design or landscape designing. You can further gain expertise for yourself in particular area of a building such as bedrooms, kitchens or baths.

There is enormous demand for qualified interior designers in India. So to be professionally qualified from a reputed institution is a must. With professional qualification comes the assurance of a good job.  And with adequate experience, you can start your own interior decoration business.

Start Early

The earliest you can start for a career in interior designing is 10+2. However, it is essential to have excellent drawing and designing skills to get into this job profile. Furthermore, if you have knowledge of decorative items, home improvement products and basics of architecture, then it becomes easier to follow this particular career path.

Is it the Right Career for Me?

The key ingredient to be a successful interior designer is client satisfaction. In this context, all you need is creative thinking, excellent communication skills, originality, good listening capability and a keen interest in transforming a simple place to a beautiful one by adding extra zing to it. If you think you have it in you, then this is the right career for you.

An understanding of fashion, cultural preferences and good management skills are also equally important aspects expected for a career in the interior designing business. A professional course helps you to develop and polish these traits.

What would it Cost Me?

You can get into this profession at different levels of your academic life be it a 10+2 or a post-graduate program. However, most of the students generally opt for short and long term diploma courses. All these courses can cost you around Rs 15,000 to Rs 50,000 roughly.

Funding/Scholarship

Different institutions offer scholarships to students from the weaker sections of the society, children of defence personnel and physically challenged candidates on the basis of merit.

Job Prospects

There is a scarcity of professional interior designers in our country. With more and more people willing to get their residence and working areas designed according to their taste, there has been a great demand for experienced interior designers.

Employment prospects are plentiful and in various fields. Setting up your own business is also a very lucrative option in this industry.

Pay Packet

Some features that affect the pay packet of an interior designer are regional differences, name, repute, experience and demand.

For beginners the salary can be around Rs 10,000. For experienced professionals the monthly pay cheque can vary from Rs 30, 000 to Rs 75,000.

After gaining some experience, you can start up your own business. Self-employment is very profitable as when you become an established interior designer you can ask for the moon.

Demand and Supply

There is an imbalance between the demand and supply of professionals in this field. The demand for experienced interior designers is on a high in spite of the recent global economic slowdown that hit almost all sectors of the world economy.

The increasing construction activity in urban areas and small towns has only added to the demand for these professionals. The demand for interior designers has surpassed the supply.

Market Watch

Market for interior designing in India is all set to absorb new and aspiring talent. Due to the rising significance of interior design, this profession has become one of the best ever emergent fields in India.

Job opportunities are immense in both private and public sector for a qualified interior designer. Large architectural firms, building contractors, hotels and resorts are constantly on a look out for eligible professionals in this field.

International Focus

International markets are opening up for interior designers now. And if you are highly creative, have a good communication skills and advance knowledge in this field then you can also look to work with international firms.

Positives/Negatives

+ives

  • The profession of interior designing is such that you can carry on consultancy activities independently with minimum investment.
  • For hardworking people, name, fame and money is assured in this profession.
  • There is a great probability to meet celebrities and well known people in your line of work.

-ives

  • Interior designing is a hectic and a very demanding profession.
  • Many a times the working hours can become erratic and that too when deadlines are stiff.
  • This profession involves both working at sites and in the office.
  • You should be able to complete a task in a given time span with deadlines.
  • Creativity is fine but you will have to do the needful for the client keeping their budget in mind.
  • The initial years are really tough and you must not lose heart.
  • You must not be disheartened by the fact that this profession has not yet received its due in the society.

Different Roles, Different Names

The different roles of interior designers are as follows:

  • Teaching in a government or a private institute that offer courses in interior designing
  • Being self-employed
  • Employment in private or public sector firms

Top Companies

  1. Work with top notch architects and architectural firms
  2. Work with renowned builders
  3. Hospitals and other medial facilities
  4. Town and city planning bureaus
  5. Hotels and health resorts
  6. Design studios and exhibition organisers
  7. Event management companies
  8. Innumerable public and private sector establishments

Tips for Getting Hired

  1. It is advisable that you should have completed an internship or some sort of apprenticeship under the tutelage of an interior designer or a firm.
  2. You should acquire good knowledge of Auto CAD and other computer related programs which can help you give new dimensions to your career.
  3. Strong business skills, personal networking, as well as flair and perseverance are likely to impress prospective employers.
  4. Last, but not the least, it is essential to complete an interior designing course from a reputed institute.

Looking for a job?

Friday, December 5th, 2014

Looking for a job? Here are four things that every job hunter should do to prepare for an interview.

Meet Steve, a job hunter attending a networking group of his peers. As we enter the room, we overhear his conversation with Sally, another job hunter.


Steve: “…my old college roommate got me fixed up with a job interview in a few days at ABC Company.”

Sally: “That’s great news, Steve!”

“Maybe,” he responds. “I don’t know much about the company and I’m going in with an open mind to let them tell me more about the organization and the job. I’m open to seeing if this is a good opportunity for me.”

The good news: Steve has sought out and attends networking meetings for job hunters. They exist all over, and often take place in local libraries or houses of worship. In these groups, people build relationships to support each other, share their needs and offer leads and suggestions of what to do next. People practice their elevator speeches and gain supportive suggestions from peers who are going through the same process of ever sharpening their message and its delivery


Steve has apparently done a great job of networking. He has motivated people from much earlier in his life to be involved and helpful with his current job hunt, and through them he’s thereby been able to get his foot in the door to meet with the hiring manager. Kudos to Steve for all this.

The problem: Having come this far, Steve won’t likely be successful if he goes into a job interview expecting to be courted, without first demonstrating his interest in the company and the value he represents.

Here are four things that Steve and every other job hunter should do to prep for an interview:

1. Thoroughly research the company. Check out its website, as well as its reputation on sites like Glassdoor.com and Vault.com. Check out its financials, business issues and competitors using sites like Yahoo! Finance, Google Finance and Hoovers.com. Hoovers is subscription based, but many local public libraries subscribe and allow their patrons to browse the site free of charge. Follow the company on LinkedIn, and see what people are saying.

2. Take time to carefully review the job description or advertisement. Prepare short narratives of how and when you have done each thing that is mentioned. Be prepared to talk about obstacles you encountered and how you dealt with them successfully. And by all means, be prepared to talk about past achievements that you have attained which in any way relate to the work necessary for the job.

3. Do an advanced people search on LinkedIn for current employees in the area of the company where you would be working, and review as many of their profiles as possible.When you are doing this, it is best to be in stealth mode. Go into the Privacy and Settings menu, adjust what others see when you have looked at their profiles and click on the “You will be totally anonymous” button.

Look for points that you have in common with individuals whose profiles you are reviewing. For example, you might have worked at the same company, attended the same school, developed similar skill sets, etc. Also seek out anything that will give you a tip off about the kinds of people the company likes to hire and the kinds of achievements that are most valuable to the company. In short, seek out anything that will give you a tip off about the kinds of people that the company likes to hire and the kinds of achievements that are most valuable to the company.

Prepare as well to subtly mention any points of commonality that you share, whether it is a past city, company, school, etc. It can be as simple as saying in one of your answers to an interview question, “When I worked at XX we did such and such …” if you know that several people in the department also worked at that company.

4. Prepare to ask intelligent questions. Never ask a question that you would know the answer to if you had done your homework. Instead, show your engagement and background by asking, “Do you do X this way or that way?” Show your desire to go above and beyond by asking, “What are the most important contributions I can make in the first six months on the job?” And include this killer interview closing question: “If I’m hired and you give me a stellar review a year from now, what will I have done to earn it?”

If a job seeker approaches an interview with an attitude that suggests, “tell me why I should want to work for you,” that person is not likely to get to the point of having to decide whether or not to work for the company. But if that same job hunter adopts the right attitude, does effective research and practices interviewing with others, he or she can sharpen the points to be made in the interview and maximize the chances of hitting the bull’s eye.

10 words and phrases that shouldn’t be on your résumé That’s some valuable real estate on your résumé. Don’t waste it with fluff.

Friday, December 5th, 2014

Writing a résumé can be downright tricky.

After all, you’ve got a finite amount of space in which to describe yourself and your professional capabilities. And you don’t have much time, either.

Yet creating a comprehensive and concise résumé is how you’ll increase your chances of landing a job interview. Although you have a sizable list of information you want to include—such as experience, skills, and education—there are also several words and phrases you should eliminate from your résumé.

Lauren Taylor, human resources generalist with Burns & McDonnell, has reviewed countless résumés. She used that experience to create a list of 10 words and phrases to keep off of your résumé. If you see any of these on your document, steer clear.

References available upon request. This phrase takes up valuable real estate that can be used to add more details about your accomplishments and experience. Instead, leave it off. If a company is interested in making you an offer, they will ask you for references (and assume you have them).

Dynamic/energetic/motivated/enthusiastic. Sure, all of these are great words to describe your personality, but leave them off of your résumé. Wait until you land the interview. Then let the company decide if you possess those traits. (After all, anyone can say they’re energetic.) If these words aren’t relevant to your skills and accomplishments, they don’t need to be on your résumé.

Microsoft Office. Most employers will assume (or even expect) you to be familiar with basic computer programs. Don’t use valuable space on this sort of information. Instead, focus on specialty skills and programs that will help you stand out from the crowd.

Objective. This is a tricky one. If you have a good objective, leave it on. If you don’t, take it off. Since the career objective is at the top of your résumé, it needs to make a big splash. If you have a specific objective to land a job in a specific industry using your specific skillset for the specific company, by all means include the information. If, on the other hand, you’re “looking to gain a challenging opportunity in which you can use your talents to help the company grow” skip it and use the space for more valuable information.

Experienced. Although you may have many years working in a certain field, don’t sell yourself short by using a word as vague and general as “experienced.” Get specific. Make a note of how long you’ve worked in a certain industry, how many clients you’ve had, what your sales were, and how much you increased profitability. Employers want to see results, not fluff.

Team player/people person/client friendly. These words are frequently overused, and while they describe skill sets almost every employer looks for, they’re also skills almost every applicant says he or she possesses on paper. Rather than put them in print, show how you embody those qualities. What groups/organizations are you involved in? Have you led a committee? What has your team accomplished together? If you’re someone who gravitates toward groups of people, then including this type of information will illustrate that you’re a team player.

Photos. We know—technically, this isn’t a word. But unless you’re applying for a job in which your face is an important part of the application process (for example, TV, acting, modeling, etc.) leave it off. It won’t help you land the position, and in some cases, employers are forced to ignore your because it contains information that can be used as discriminatory—that is age, sex, ethnicity—later in the process.

High School. Once you reach your sophomore year in college, delete all of your high school info on your résumé (school, GPA, activities, summer job, etc.). The only information you may want to consider including is an exceptional ACT or SAT score, and this is more relevant for new graduates.

Contact info. Keep it simple when including your contact info. Provide one phone number, one email address, and one street address.

Hobbies/interests. Leave them off! Your résumé is a professional, one-page guide to help an employer learn about your accomplishments. This document doesn’t need to include your love of hiking, scuba diving, or swing dancing. Employers will often look at a hobby section as filler. If you want to use your hobbies as a way to find common ground, list them on your LinkedIn profile, or find a good way to bring them up in your interview.

There you have it: A handy cheat sheet you can reference each time you write or update your résumé. By avoiding these commonly overused words and phrases, you can make better use of your résumé’s limited space to help a recruiter envision your skills, professional history, and how you’ll fit in to the new position and company.

What after class 12th…? Career Option & Selection Parameters

Thursday, December 4th, 2014

Are you appearing for your class 12th exam or waiting for the results? Time has come for you to decide over your career. A concrete plan about your future needs to be drawn at this juncture which will in turn determine the course of your professional life.

These are the initial year to shape your career. Stiff competition and plenty of options make students confused. To weed out the thorns of confusion, first you need to analyze your interest, hobby, inclination, potentiality and opportunities. It is often said that if you choose your career based on your interest and hobby, the success rate as well as satisfaction level will be very high. As Darwin said   “Survival of the fittest”. Do not choose any career under the influence of friends or parents. Give priority to your potential and interest. It should be the sole criteria of selecting a career. Choose your career on the basis of following aspects keeping in mind.

•    Area of interest

•    Personality

•    Aptitude

•    Assess your strength and weakness.

•    Skills

•    Possibility and Opportunities.

•    Capability

•    Feasibility and guidance

•    Nature of work

•    Financial aid and scholarship

Below has discussed about the various career option available:

*Career in Management Stream    *Career in Computers & IT        *Career in Engineering

*Career in Medical                       *Distance Education                   *Vocational Courses

Types of jobs: Information Technology

Thursday, December 4th, 2014

• Applications developer
• Database administrator
• Games developer
• Geographical information systems officer
• Information systems manager
• IT consultant
• IT sales professional
• IT technical support officer
• Multimedia programmer
• Multimedia specialist
• Network engineer
• Systems analyst
• Systems developer
• Technical author
• Web designer

How to Improve English

Thursday, December 4th, 2014
The importance of the English language cannot be overemphasized. Comfort with English is almost a prerequisite for success in the world today. Regardless of the industry, proficiency in English is an important factor in both hiring and promotion decisions.

A lot of us have studied English in school and are fairly comfortable with reading and writing. However, we hesitate while speaking because we feel that we lack the fluency and may make grammatical mistakes. We are afraid of speaking English in formal situations and we are quick to switch to our native language once we are in the company of our family and friends.

There is no quick fix when it comes to improving your command over a particular language. It always requires a lot of time and effort.

Here are EnglishLeap’s top ten tips for success in achieving proficiency and fluency in English:

  1. Do not hesitate. Talk to whoever you can. Decide among your circle of friends that you will only talk in English with each other. This way you can get rid of hesitation and also have your friends correct you when you are wrong.

  2. Start a conversation with strangers in English. Since you do not know them personally, you will feel less conscious about what they would feel about you.

  3. Maintaining a diary to record the events of your day is a great way topractice your writing skills. Take your time to use new words and phrases when you write in your diary.

  4. Read the newspaper. Read it aloud when you can. Concentrate on each word. Note down the words you don’t understand and learn their meanings. Try to use these words in your own sentences.

  5. Watch English movies and English shows on television. Initially, you can read the sub-titles to follow the conversation. As you practice more, you will realize that you are able to follow the conversation without needing to read the sub-titles.

  6. Set aside an hour every day to watch English news channels. This is one of the most effective ways of improving your comprehension.

  7. Podcasts are available on the internet. These are audio and video files and many of these can be downloaded for free. These are a great way to practice listening skills and develop an understanding of different accents.

  8. It is usually quite difficult for a beginner to understand the words of an English song as there is background music and the accent of the artist may be unfamiliar to the listener. Read the lyrics while you listen to the song and you will comprehend better. Once you start following the voice of a particular singer, you will find it much easier to understand the singer’s other songs too.

  9. Another effective way is to record your own voice and listen to it. You will notice hesitations and pauses. You may also notice that you make some grammatical mistakes while speaking that you do not make while writing. You must aim to improve and rectify these mistakes in subsequent recordings.

  10. Ask people who speak better for advice. There is no shame in seeking help especially if you are trying to improve yourself. Talk to them in English and ask them to correct you whenever you are wrong.

How to choose a College?

Thursday, December 4th, 2014
The question arises that how to decide a college when there are thousands of engineering colleges in India. In this article we will discuss some of the features of colleges which will help you to choose the right college. There are various factors while deciding a college for admissionbut always keep in mind the following factors:
  • Infrastructure: College Infrastructure does not mean good looking building only. It means that whether a college has sufficient amount of infrastructure according to its intake capacity. It includes classroom, administrative building, workshop, computer labs, various laboratories etc.
  • Faculty: Having a good infrastructure is not the only thing which is required. After having sufficient infrastructure it is the faculty that make it useful, otherwise it will be a school without a teacher. Always choose a college with faculties having good academic profile as well as industrial exposure.
  • Facilities: This is another important factor that you have to keep in mind. Facilities provided by college such as: Library, Internet, intranet, seminar halls, canteen, well equipped labs etc.
  • Placements: This is the most important factor while deciding a college.Things which are to be considered are Percentage of placements, type of companies, job profile and average package offered every year.
  • Extracurricular activities: “All work and no play make jack a dull boy”. Extracurricular activities play a very important role in your personality development. So have a look about extra activities provided by college like, seminars, workshops, industrial training, annual function, sport function, students club, social activities, etc.
  • Location: This factor does not play a very important role but if it is nearby any industrial or software hub then it may be slightly useful to you as far as your industrial training and placement is concerned but keep this factor at last.

    So now question arises that how you can get so much of information about each and every college there are some tips for you

    1.Visit the college web site on Internet.

    2. Visit the college personally if possible.

Career Options after the completion of class 10 board exams …!!!

Thursday, December 4th, 2014
Any students after the completion of class 10 board exams are always worried about which stream to choose in Pre-University Education (i.e. to join class 11). Well, here are a few Key options available for a studentafter the board examination.

In India, there are a few main streams which are available for a student to choose after class 10.

We are not considering the various vocational courses which are designed to provide early employment options to various students. The main streams available for a student after the board examinations of 10th student are as mentioned below:

Commerce – Deals with courses on trade and business Science – Deals with courses in Medical sciences and Engineering Arts/Humanities – Deals with a very wide range of courses such as History, Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, languages, Anthropology, Human Resources, journalism etc.. The stream has been increasingly chosen by a large chunk of students after completion of 10th standard, due to its attractiveness in terms of finding early employment and also beginning of entrepreneurship. Subjects which are offered in Commerce stream: There are many degree and diploma courses which encompasses the Commerce stream. Some of the key subjects which are taught in the commerce stream are as below: 1. Economics 2. Accountancy 3. Business studies and business law Some of the popular graduate courses offered through the commerce stream are B.Com, BBA, BMS, BBM, CFA, CA, ICWA, CFP etc. Mostly major commerce colleges offer subjects such as Business economics, financial accounting, Business communication, Marketing, Business law, Business finance, Auditing, Cost accounting, Income tax from which students has to choose their subject of interest. A student has to take total six subjects along with English and one additional subject. Some important tests for Commerce pursuer after passing 10th standard examination: There are some competitive examinations which can be appeared by a student after passing 10th examination which are mentioned below. 1. C.S Foundation course 2. C.A Foundation course 3. ICWA Foundation course 4. Business Studies.

Science stream: It offers lucrative career options to students after 12th standard. It opens up the career options in Engineering and Medical sciences. The major subjects that are offered in the Science stream are Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, Mathematics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science. For anyone who wants to study Engineering has to study Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics and those who want to study Medical sciences has to choose Biology as a main subject. A student has to take at least six subjects including English.

Arts stream: Arts stream has a wide variety of subjects which can offer exciting opportunities. Selection of Arts stream after 10th examination enables to pave the way for choosing some other gripping careers. This stream offers subject History, Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, English, Hindi and Sanskrit for the higher secondary level. But one has to opt for four compulsory subjects in addition to English and a Modern Indian Language. If anyone has interest to pursue a career in mass media, journalism, literature, sociology, social service, human psychology, politics, economics and history then you must choose Arts stream after passing 10th examination.

Stepper Motor

Thursday, December 4th, 2014

stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor’s position can then be commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application.

Switched reluctance motors are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated.

Fundamentals of operation

DC brush motors rotate continuously when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple “toothed” electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first, one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear’s teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet’s teeth. When the gear’s teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a “step”, with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

Stepper motor characteristics

  • Stepper motors are constant power devices.
  • As motor speed increases, torque decreases. Most motors exhibit maximum torque when stationary; however, the torque of a motor when stationary (holding torque) defines the ability of the motor to maintain a desired position while under external load. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage (sometimes referred to as a ‘chopper’ circuit; there are several off the shelf driver chips capable of doing this in a simple manner).
  • Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types, as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another (called a detent). The vibration makes stepper motors noisier than DC motors. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque or lose direction. This is because the rotor is being held in a magnetic field which behaves like a spring. On each step the rotor overshoots and bounces back and forth, “ringing” at its resonant frequency. If the stepping frequency matches the resonant frequency then the ringing increases and the motor loses synchronism, resulting in positional error or a change in direction. At worst there is a total loss of control and holding torque so the motor is easily overcome by the load and spins almost freely. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range, physically damping (frictional damping) the system, or using a micro-stepping driver. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases (this can also be achieved through the use of a micro-stepping driver).
  • Stepper motors with higher inductance coils provide greater torque at low speeds and lower torque at high speeds compared to stepper motors with lower inductance coils.

Open-loop versus closed-loop commutation

Steppers are generally commutated (electrically switched) using “open loop” electronics, i.e., the driver has no feedback on where the rotor actually is. Stepper motor systems must thus generally be oversized, especially if the load inertia is high, or there is widely varying load, so that there is no possibility that the motor will lose steps. This has often caused the system designer to consider the trade-offs between a closely sized but expensive servomechanism system and an oversized but relatively cheap stepper.

A new development in stepper control is to incorporate a rotor position feedback (e.g., a rotary encoder or resolver), so that the commutation can be made optimal for torque generation according to actual rotor position. This turns the stepper motor into a high pole count brushless servo motor, with exceptional low speed torque and position resolution. An advance on this technique is to normally run the motor in open loop mode, and only enter closed loop mode if the rotor position error becomes too large; this will allow the system to avoid hunting or oscillating, a problem when servo gain is set too high.

Types

There are four main types of stepper motors:

  1. Permanent magnet stepper (can be subdivided in to ‘tin-can’ and ‘hybrid’, tin-can being a cheaper product, and hybrid with higher quality bearings, smaller step angle, higher power density)
  2. Hybrid synchronous stepper
  3. Variable reluctance stepper
  4. Lavet type stepping motor

Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in the rotor and operate on the attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator electromagnets. Variable reluctance (VR) motors have a plain iron rotor and operate based on the principle that minimum reluctance occurs with minimum gap, hence the rotor points are attracted toward the stator magnet poles. Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a combination of PM and VR techniques to achieve maximum power in a small package size.