Archive for the ‘Career Counseling’ Category

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Career in Interior designing

Friday, December 5th, 2014
Space for residential and commercial places is shrinking due to rapid urbanisation. This anomalous situation calls for professional help to make the living and working space more comfortable, beautiful and practical. Earlier, it was the task of an architect to do the entire exteriors along with the interiors of a house, office or any other functionally useful edifice. Now-a-days people have become more and more particular about the designs and the layout of the living or working area. This has led to an increasing requirement for professionals in interior designing.

As an interior designer, you will be trained to design exclusive furniture artefacts and fittings besides learning managerial skills. With the help of a course in interior designing, you will come out with a professional designing solution that is efficient, eye-catching and at the same time safe.

The basic job of an interior designer is to make optimal utilisation of available space. Further, you have to make the space more functional and in accordance with the taste and budget of the client. Besides visualising and conceptualising the designs for new structures, interior designers also plan the interiors of existing structures that are undergoing renovation or extension.

Step-by-Step

The popularity of interior designing as a discipline is not confined to urban cities but it has rapidly spread to small town and cities across the nation. This is largely because of the changing lifestyle of people and their want to customise their residence with the help of an expert who can understand their taste and preference.

Numerous reputed institutions all over India are offering study programs in interior designing. The basic qualification to get into most of these programs is a 10+2. Moreover, you will also have to get through an entrance examination that judges your drawing and design skills. It is advisable to prepare a portfolio of your creative work and display it at the time of admission to these study programs.

Architecture and design colleges generally offer study programs in interior designing. Most of these are diploma programs. You can also pursue an interior design course from a polytechnic or a private institution that provides specialisation in a particular area of interior designing.

Furthermore, entry into this profession is also possible through other areas of study such as graduation in architecture, fine arts, design, environment planning or a post-graduate program in a similar field.

Specialisation in a particular area of interior designing can be done depending on your choice. For example; you can excel in business design, residential design or landscape designing. You can further gain expertise for yourself in particular area of a building such as bedrooms, kitchens or baths.

There is enormous demand for qualified interior designers in India. So to be professionally qualified from a reputed institution is a must. With professional qualification comes the assurance of a good job.  And with adequate experience, you can start your own interior decoration business.

Start Early

The earliest you can start for a career in interior designing is 10+2. However, it is essential to have excellent drawing and designing skills to get into this job profile. Furthermore, if you have knowledge of decorative items, home improvement products and basics of architecture, then it becomes easier to follow this particular career path.

Is it the Right Career for Me?

The key ingredient to be a successful interior designer is client satisfaction. In this context, all you need is creative thinking, excellent communication skills, originality, good listening capability and a keen interest in transforming a simple place to a beautiful one by adding extra zing to it. If you think you have it in you, then this is the right career for you.

An understanding of fashion, cultural preferences and good management skills are also equally important aspects expected for a career in the interior designing business. A professional course helps you to develop and polish these traits.

What would it Cost Me?

You can get into this profession at different levels of your academic life be it a 10+2 or a post-graduate program. However, most of the students generally opt for short and long term diploma courses. All these courses can cost you around Rs 15,000 to Rs 50,000 roughly.

Funding/Scholarship

Different institutions offer scholarships to students from the weaker sections of the society, children of defence personnel and physically challenged candidates on the basis of merit.

Job Prospects

There is a scarcity of professional interior designers in our country. With more and more people willing to get their residence and working areas designed according to their taste, there has been a great demand for experienced interior designers.

Employment prospects are plentiful and in various fields. Setting up your own business is also a very lucrative option in this industry.

Pay Packet

Some features that affect the pay packet of an interior designer are regional differences, name, repute, experience and demand.

For beginners the salary can be around Rs 10,000. For experienced professionals the monthly pay cheque can vary from Rs 30, 000 to Rs 75,000.

After gaining some experience, you can start up your own business. Self-employment is very profitable as when you become an established interior designer you can ask for the moon.

Demand and Supply

There is an imbalance between the demand and supply of professionals in this field. The demand for experienced interior designers is on a high in spite of the recent global economic slowdown that hit almost all sectors of the world economy.

The increasing construction activity in urban areas and small towns has only added to the demand for these professionals. The demand for interior designers has surpassed the supply.

Market Watch

Market for interior designing in India is all set to absorb new and aspiring talent. Due to the rising significance of interior design, this profession has become one of the best ever emergent fields in India.

Job opportunities are immense in both private and public sector for a qualified interior designer. Large architectural firms, building contractors, hotels and resorts are constantly on a look out for eligible professionals in this field.

International Focus

International markets are opening up for interior designers now. And if you are highly creative, have a good communication skills and advance knowledge in this field then you can also look to work with international firms.

Positives/Negatives

+ives

  • The profession of interior designing is such that you can carry on consultancy activities independently with minimum investment.
  • For hardworking people, name, fame and money is assured in this profession.
  • There is a great probability to meet celebrities and well known people in your line of work.

-ives

  • Interior designing is a hectic and a very demanding profession.
  • Many a times the working hours can become erratic and that too when deadlines are stiff.
  • This profession involves both working at sites and in the office.
  • You should be able to complete a task in a given time span with deadlines.
  • Creativity is fine but you will have to do the needful for the client keeping their budget in mind.
  • The initial years are really tough and you must not lose heart.
  • You must not be disheartened by the fact that this profession has not yet received its due in the society.

Different Roles, Different Names

The different roles of interior designers are as follows:

  • Teaching in a government or a private institute that offer courses in interior designing
  • Being self-employed
  • Employment in private or public sector firms

Top Companies

  1. Work with top notch architects and architectural firms
  2. Work with renowned builders
  3. Hospitals and other medial facilities
  4. Town and city planning bureaus
  5. Hotels and health resorts
  6. Design studios and exhibition organisers
  7. Event management companies
  8. Innumerable public and private sector establishments

Tips for Getting Hired

  1. It is advisable that you should have completed an internship or some sort of apprenticeship under the tutelage of an interior designer or a firm.
  2. You should acquire good knowledge of Auto CAD and other computer related programs which can help you give new dimensions to your career.
  3. Strong business skills, personal networking, as well as flair and perseverance are likely to impress prospective employers.
  4. Last, but not the least, it is essential to complete an interior designing course from a reputed institute.

What after class 12th…? Career Option & Selection Parameters

Thursday, December 4th, 2014

Are you appearing for your class 12th exam or waiting for the results? Time has come for you to decide over your career. A concrete plan about your future needs to be drawn at this juncture which will in turn determine the course of your professional life.

These are the initial year to shape your career. Stiff competition and plenty of options make students confused. To weed out the thorns of confusion, first you need to analyze your interest, hobby, inclination, potentiality and opportunities. It is often said that if you choose your career based on your interest and hobby, the success rate as well as satisfaction level will be very high. As Darwin said   “Survival of the fittest”. Do not choose any career under the influence of friends or parents. Give priority to your potential and interest. It should be the sole criteria of selecting a career. Choose your career on the basis of following aspects keeping in mind.

•    Area of interest

•    Personality

•    Aptitude

•    Assess your strength and weakness.

•    Skills

•    Possibility and Opportunities.

•    Capability

•    Feasibility and guidance

•    Nature of work

•    Financial aid and scholarship

Below has discussed about the various career option available:

*Career in Management Stream    *Career in Computers & IT        *Career in Engineering

*Career in Medical                       *Distance Education                   *Vocational Courses

How to Improve English

Thursday, December 4th, 2014
The importance of the English language cannot be overemphasized. Comfort with English is almost a prerequisite for success in the world today. Regardless of the industry, proficiency in English is an important factor in both hiring and promotion decisions.

A lot of us have studied English in school and are fairly comfortable with reading and writing. However, we hesitate while speaking because we feel that we lack the fluency and may make grammatical mistakes. We are afraid of speaking English in formal situations and we are quick to switch to our native language once we are in the company of our family and friends.

There is no quick fix when it comes to improving your command over a particular language. It always requires a lot of time and effort.

Here are EnglishLeap’s top ten tips for success in achieving proficiency and fluency in English:

  1. Do not hesitate. Talk to whoever you can. Decide among your circle of friends that you will only talk in English with each other. This way you can get rid of hesitation and also have your friends correct you when you are wrong.

  2. Start a conversation with strangers in English. Since you do not know them personally, you will feel less conscious about what they would feel about you.

  3. Maintaining a diary to record the events of your day is a great way topractice your writing skills. Take your time to use new words and phrases when you write in your diary.

  4. Read the newspaper. Read it aloud when you can. Concentrate on each word. Note down the words you don’t understand and learn their meanings. Try to use these words in your own sentences.

  5. Watch English movies and English shows on television. Initially, you can read the sub-titles to follow the conversation. As you practice more, you will realize that you are able to follow the conversation without needing to read the sub-titles.

  6. Set aside an hour every day to watch English news channels. This is one of the most effective ways of improving your comprehension.

  7. Podcasts are available on the internet. These are audio and video files and many of these can be downloaded for free. These are a great way to practice listening skills and develop an understanding of different accents.

  8. It is usually quite difficult for a beginner to understand the words of an English song as there is background music and the accent of the artist may be unfamiliar to the listener. Read the lyrics while you listen to the song and you will comprehend better. Once you start following the voice of a particular singer, you will find it much easier to understand the singer’s other songs too.

  9. Another effective way is to record your own voice and listen to it. You will notice hesitations and pauses. You may also notice that you make some grammatical mistakes while speaking that you do not make while writing. You must aim to improve and rectify these mistakes in subsequent recordings.

  10. Ask people who speak better for advice. There is no shame in seeking help especially if you are trying to improve yourself. Talk to them in English and ask them to correct you whenever you are wrong.

How to choose a College?

Thursday, December 4th, 2014
The question arises that how to decide a college when there are thousands of engineering colleges in India. In this article we will discuss some of the features of colleges which will help you to choose the right college. There are various factors while deciding a college for admissionbut always keep in mind the following factors:
  • Infrastructure: College Infrastructure does not mean good looking building only. It means that whether a college has sufficient amount of infrastructure according to its intake capacity. It includes classroom, administrative building, workshop, computer labs, various laboratories etc.
  • Faculty: Having a good infrastructure is not the only thing which is required. After having sufficient infrastructure it is the faculty that make it useful, otherwise it will be a school without a teacher. Always choose a college with faculties having good academic profile as well as industrial exposure.
  • Facilities: This is another important factor that you have to keep in mind. Facilities provided by college such as: Library, Internet, intranet, seminar halls, canteen, well equipped labs etc.
  • Placements: This is the most important factor while deciding a college.Things which are to be considered are Percentage of placements, type of companies, job profile and average package offered every year.
  • Extracurricular activities: “All work and no play make jack a dull boy”. Extracurricular activities play a very important role in your personality development. So have a look about extra activities provided by college like, seminars, workshops, industrial training, annual function, sport function, students club, social activities, etc.
  • Location: This factor does not play a very important role but if it is nearby any industrial or software hub then it may be slightly useful to you as far as your industrial training and placement is concerned but keep this factor at last.

    So now question arises that how you can get so much of information about each and every college there are some tips for you

    1.Visit the college web site on Internet.

    2. Visit the college personally if possible.

Career Options after the completion of class 10 board exams …!!!

Thursday, December 4th, 2014
Any students after the completion of class 10 board exams are always worried about which stream to choose in Pre-University Education (i.e. to join class 11). Well, here are a few Key options available for a studentafter the board examination.

In India, there are a few main streams which are available for a student to choose after class 10.

We are not considering the various vocational courses which are designed to provide early employment options to various students. The main streams available for a student after the board examinations of 10th student are as mentioned below:

Commerce – Deals with courses on trade and business Science – Deals with courses in Medical sciences and Engineering Arts/Humanities – Deals with a very wide range of courses such as History, Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, languages, Anthropology, Human Resources, journalism etc.. The stream has been increasingly chosen by a large chunk of students after completion of 10th standard, due to its attractiveness in terms of finding early employment and also beginning of entrepreneurship. Subjects which are offered in Commerce stream: There are many degree and diploma courses which encompasses the Commerce stream. Some of the key subjects which are taught in the commerce stream are as below: 1. Economics 2. Accountancy 3. Business studies and business law Some of the popular graduate courses offered through the commerce stream are B.Com, BBA, BMS, BBM, CFA, CA, ICWA, CFP etc. Mostly major commerce colleges offer subjects such as Business economics, financial accounting, Business communication, Marketing, Business law, Business finance, Auditing, Cost accounting, Income tax from which students has to choose their subject of interest. A student has to take total six subjects along with English and one additional subject. Some important tests for Commerce pursuer after passing 10th standard examination: There are some competitive examinations which can be appeared by a student after passing 10th examination which are mentioned below. 1. C.S Foundation course 2. C.A Foundation course 3. ICWA Foundation course 4. Business Studies.

Science stream: It offers lucrative career options to students after 12th standard. It opens up the career options in Engineering and Medical sciences. The major subjects that are offered in the Science stream are Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, Mathematics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science. For anyone who wants to study Engineering has to study Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics and those who want to study Medical sciences has to choose Biology as a main subject. A student has to take at least six subjects including English.

Arts stream: Arts stream has a wide variety of subjects which can offer exciting opportunities. Selection of Arts stream after 10th examination enables to pave the way for choosing some other gripping careers. This stream offers subject History, Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, English, Hindi and Sanskrit for the higher secondary level. But one has to opt for four compulsory subjects in addition to English and a Modern Indian Language. If anyone has interest to pursue a career in mass media, journalism, literature, sociology, social service, human psychology, politics, economics and history then you must choose Arts stream after passing 10th examination.

Introduction of ANIMATION

Wednesday, October 21st, 2009

Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in a number of ways.

The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although several other forms of presenting animation also exist.

History of animation

Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion.

A 5,200 year old earthen bowl found in Iran in shakira has five images of a goat painted along the sides. This has been claimed to be an example of early animation. However, since no equipment existed to show the images in motion, such a series of images cannot be called animation in a true sense of the word.

The phenakistoscope, praxinoscope, as well as the common flip book were early popular animation devices invented during the 1800s, while a Chinese zoetrope-type device was invented already in 180 AD. These devices produced movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of cinematography.

There is no single person who can be considered the “creator” of the art of film animation, as there were several people doing several projects which could be considered various types of animation all around the same time.

Georges Méliès was a creator of special-effect films; he was generally one of the first people to use animation with his technique. He discovered a technique by accident which was to stop the camera rolling to change something in the scene, and then continue rolling the film. This idea was later known as stop-motion animation. Méliès discovered this technique accidentally when his camera broke down while shooting a bus driving by. When he had fixed the camera, a hearse happened to be passing by just as Méliès restarted rolling the film, his end result was that he had managed to make a bus transform into a hearse. This was just one of the great contributors to animation in the early years.

The earliest surviving stop-motion advertising film was an English short by Arthur Melbourne-Cooper called Matches: An Appeal (1899). Developed for the Bryant and May Matchsticks company, it involved stop-motion animation of wired-together matches writing a patriotic call to action on a blackboard.

J. Stuart Blackton was possibly the first American filmmaker to use the techniques of stop-motion and hand-drawn animation. Introduced to filmmaking by Edison, he pioneered these concepts at the turn of the 20th century, with his first copyrighted work dated 1900. Several of his films, among them The Enchanted Drawing (1900) and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) were film versions of Blackton’s “lightning artist” routine, and utilized modified versions of Méliès’ early stop-motion techniques to make a series of blackboard drawings appear to move and reshape themselves. ‘Humorous Phases of Funny Faces’ is regularly cited as the first true animated film, and Blackton is considered the first true animator.

Another French artist, Émile Cohl, began drawing cartoon strips and created a film in 1908 called Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects, such as a wine bottle that transforms into a flower. There were also sections of live action where the animator’s hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, which gave the picture a blackboard look. This makes Fantasmagorie the first animated film created using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation.

Following the successes of Blackton and Cohl, many other artists began experimenting with animation. One such artist was Winsor McCay, a successful newspaper cartoonist, who created detailed animations that required a team of artists and painstaking attention for detail. Each frame was drawn on paper; which invariably required backgrounds and characters to be redrawn and animated. Among McCay’s most noted films are Little Nemo (1911), Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918).

The production of animated short films, typically referred to as “cartoons”, became an industry of its own during the 1910s, and cartoon shorts were produced to be shown in movie theaters. The most successful early animation producer was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.

Techniques

Traditional animation

Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, which are first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators’ drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture film against a painted background by a rostrum camera.

The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators’ drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm film and newer media such as digital video. The “look” of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators’ work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term “tradigital” to describe cel animation which makes extensive use of computer technology.

Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (United States, 1940), Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and Akira (Japan, 1988). Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include The Lion King (US, 1994) Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away) (Japan, 2001), Treasure Planet (USA, 2002) and Les Triplettes de Belleville (2003).

  • Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films, which regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement. Fully animated films can be done in a variety of styles, from realistically designed works such as those produced by the Walt Disney studio, to the more “cartoony” styles of those produced by the Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works such as The Secret of NIMH (US, 1982) and The Iron Giant (US, 1999), Nocturna (Spain, 2007)
  • Limited animation involves the use of less detailed and/or more stylized drawings and methods of movement. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio United Productions of America, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in Gerald McBoing Boing (US, 1951), Yellow Submarine (UK, 1968), and much of the anime produced in Japan. Its primary use, however, has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media such as television (the work of Hanna-Barbera, Filmation, and other TV animation studios) and later the Internet (web cartoons). Some examples are; Spongebob Squarepants (USA, 1999-present), The Fairy Oddparents (USA, 2001-present) and Invader Zim (USA, 2001-2006).
  • Rotoscoping is a technique, patented by Max Fleischer in 1917, where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors’ outlines into animated drawings, as in The Lord of the Rings (US, 1978), used as a basis and inspiration for character animation, as in most Disney films, or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in Waking Life (US, 2001) and A Scanner Darkly (US, 2006). Some other examples are; Ralf Bakshi’s The Lord of the Rings (USA, 1978) and Fire and Ice (USA, 1983), Heavy Metal (1981).
  • Live-action/animation is a technique, when combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots. One of the earlier uses of it was Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live action footage. Other examples would include Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (USA, 1988), Space Jam (USA, 1996) and Osmosis Jones (USA, 2002).
  • Anime is a technique primarily used in Japan but originated in USA. It usually consists of detailed characters but more of a stiff animation. mouth moments primarily use 2-3 frames, leg moments use about 6-10, etc. A lot of the time the eyes are very detailed, so sometimes instead of the animator drawing them over again in every frame, two eyes will be drawn in 5-6 angles and pasted on each frame(modern times uses computer for that). Some example of Anime films are; Spirited Away (Japan, 2001), Akira (Japan, 1988) and Princess Mononoke.

Stop motion

Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation.

  • Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting with each other in a constructed environment, in contrast to the real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as constraining them to move at particular joints. Examples include The Tale of the Fox (France, 1937), Nightmare Before Christmas (US, 1993), Corpse Bride (US, 2005), Coraline (US, 2009), the films of Ji?í Trnka and the TV series Robot Chicken (US, 2005–present).
    • Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pál, are puppet-animated films which typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet.
  • Clay animation, or Plasticine animation often abbreviated as claymation, uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside of them, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated in order to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, such as in the films of Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include The Gumby Show (US, 1957–1967) Morph shorts (UK, 1977–2000), Wallace and Gromit shorts (UK, as of 1989), Jan Švankmajer’s Dimensions of Dialogue (Czechoslovakia, 1982), The Trap Door (UK, 1984). Films include Wallace and Gromit: Curse of the Were-Rabbit and The Adventures of Mark Twain
  • Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving 2-dimensional pieces of material such as paper or cloth. Examples include Terry Gilliam’s animated sequences from Monty Python’s Flying Circus (UK, 1969-1974); Fantastic Planet (France/Czechoslovakia, 1973) ; Tale of Tales (Russia, 1979), The pilot episode of the TV series (and sometimes in episodes) of South Park (US, 1997).
    • Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes. Examples include The Adventures of Prince Achmed (Weimar Republic, 1926) and Princes et princesses (France, 2000).
  • Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Intercutting, matte effects, and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. Examples include the work of Ray Harryhausen, as seen in films such Jason and the Argonauts (1961), and the work of Willis O’Brien on films such as King Kong (1933 film).
    • Go motion is a variant of model animation which uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film, which is not present in traditional stop-motion. The technique was invented by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett to create special effects scenes for the film The Empire Strikes Back(1980).
  • Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items. One example of object animation is the brickfilm, which incorporates the use of plastic toy construction blocks such as Lego.
    • Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.) which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action.
  • Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other such effects. Examples of pixilation include The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb and Angry Kid shorts.

Computer animation

Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer.

2D animation

2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of tweening, morphing, onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping.

  • Analog computer animation
  • Flash animation
  • PowerPoint animation

3D animation

3D animation digital models manipulated by an animator. In order to manipulate a mesh, it is given a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. This process is called rigging. Various other techniques can be applied, such as mathematical functions (ex. gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, effects such as fire and water and the use of Motion capture to name but a few, these techniques fall under the category of 3d dynamics. Many 3D animations are very believable and are commonly used as Visual effects for recent movies.

2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.

Other animation techniques

  • Drawn on film animation: a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock, for example by Norman McLaren, Len Lye and Stan Brakhage.
  • Paint-on-glass animation: a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying oil paints on sheets of glass.
  • Pinscreen animation: makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation.
  • Sand animation: sand is moved around on a backlighted or frontlighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light contrast.
  • Flip book: A flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books.

$ The 1906 cartoon Humorous Phases of Funny Faces by J. Stuart Blackton, regarded to be the first animated film.

 

# For MORE E-mail to info@makcissolutions.com .

History of ANIMATION

Wednesday, October 21st, 2009

Animation is an art form which, in its modern apearance, appeared alongside the development of motion pictures. Earlier attempts at making drawings move were only experimental.

The past

Cave paintings

The earliest examples derive from still drawings, which can be found in Palaeolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple sets of legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion.

Pottery of Persia

A 5,200-year old earthen bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i Sokhta has five images painted along the sides. It shows phases of a goat leaping up to a tree to take a pear. However, since no equipment existed to show the images in motion, such a series of images cannot be called animation in a true sense of the word. Similar forms of sequential images can also be found in medieval Persian Islamic pottery.

Egyptian murals

An Egyptian mural, approximately 4000 years old, shows wrestlers in action. Even though this may appear similar to a series of animation drawings, there was no way of viewing the images in motion. It does, however, indicate the artist’s intention of depicting motion.

Zoetrope

A zoetrope is a device which creates the image of a moving picture. The earliest elementary zoetrope was created in China around 180 AD by the prolific inventor Ting Huan. Driven by convection Ting Huan’s device hung over a lamp. The rising air turned vanes at the top from which were hung translucent paper or mica panels. Pictures painted on the panels would appear to move if the device is spun at the right speed.

The modern zoetrope contraption was produced in 1834 by William George Horner. The device is basically a cylinder with vertical slits around the sides. Around the inside edge of the cylinder there are a series of pictures on the opposite side to the slits. As the cylinder is spun, the user then looks through the slits producing the illusion of motion. No one thought this small device would be the initial beginnings for the animation world to come. As a matter a fact, in present day beginning animation classes, the Zoetrope is still being used to illustrate early concepts of animation.

Leonardo shoulder study (ca. 1510)

Seven drawings by Leonardo da Vinci extending over two folios in the Windsor Collection, Anatomical Studies of the Muscles of the Neck, Shoulder, Chest, and Arm, show detailed drawings of the upper body (with a less-detailed facial image), illustrating the changes as the torso turns from profile to frontal position and the forearm extends.

The magic lantern

The magic lantern is the predecessor of the modern day projector. It consisted of a translucent oil painting and a simple lamp. When put together in a darkened room, the image would appear larger on a flat surface. Athanasius Kircher spoke about this originating from China in the 16th century. Some slides for the lanterns contained parts that could be mechanically actuated to present limited movement on the screen.

Thaumatrope (1824)

A thaumatrope was a simple toy used in the Victorian era. It was a small circular disk or card with two different pictures on each side that was attached to a piece of string running through the centre. When the string were twirled quickly between the fingers the two pictures appear to combine into a single image. The creator of this invention may have been either John Ayrton Paris or Charles Babbage.

Phenakistoscope (1831)

The phenakistoscope was an early animation device, the predecessor of the zoetrope. It was invented in 1831 simultaneously by the Belgian Joseph Plateau and the Austrian Simon von Stampfer.

Praxinoscope (1877)

The praxinoscope, invented by French scientist Charles-Émile Reynaud, was a more sophisticated version of the zoetrope. It used the same basic mechanism of a strip of images placed on the inside of a spinning cylinder, but instead of viewing it through slits, it was viewed in a series of small, stationary mirrors around the inside of the cylinder, so that the animation would stay in place, and provide a clearer image and better quality. Reynaud also developed a larger version of the praxinoscope that could be projected onto a screen, called the Théâtre Optique.

Flip book (1868)

The first flip book was patented in 1868 by a John Barns Linnet. Flip books were yet another development that brought us closer to modern animation. Like the Zoetrope, the Flip Book creates the illusion of motion. A set of sequential pictures flipped at a high speed creates this effect. The Mutoscope (1894) is basically a flip book in a box with a crank handle to flip the pages.

The present

Traditional animation

The first animated film was created by Charles-Émile Reynaud, inventor of the praxinoscope, an animation system using loops of 12 pictures. On October 28, 1892 at Musée Grévin in Paris, France he exhibited animations consisting of loops of about 500 frames, using his Théâtre Optique system – similar in principle to a modern film projector.

The first animated work on standard picture film was Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) by J. Stuart Blackton. It features a cartoonist drawing faces on a chalkboard, and the faces apparently coming to life.

The first puppet-animated film was The Beautiful Lukanida (1912) by the Russian-born (ethnically Polish) director Wladyslaw Starewicz (Ladislas Starevich).

The first animated feature film was El Apóstol, made in 1917 by Quirino Cristiani from Argentina. He also directed two other animated feature films, including 1931’s Peludopolis, the first to use synchronized sound. None of these, however, survive to the present day. The earliest-surviving animated feature, which used colour-tinted scenes, is the silhouette-animated Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926) directed by German Lotte Reiniger and French/Hungarian Berthold Bartosch. Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), often considered to be the first animated feature when in fact at least eight were previously released. However, Snow White was the first to become successful and well-known within the English-speaking world.

The first animation to use the full, three-color Technicolor method was Flowers and Trees (1932) made by Disney Studios which won an academy award for this work.

 Stop motion

Stop motion is used for many animation productions using physical objects rather than images of people, as with traditional animation. An object will be photographed, moved slightly, and then photographed again. When the pictures are played back in normal speed the object will appear to move by itself. This process is used for many productions, for example, clay animations such as Chicken Run and Wallace and Gromit, as well as animated movies which use poseable figures, such as The Nightmare Before Christmas and James and the Giant Peach.

Stop motion animation was also commonly used for special effects work in many live-action films, such as the 1933 version of King Kong and The 7th Voyage of Sinbad.

CGI animation

Computer-generated imagery (CGI) revolutionized animation. The first film done completely in CGI was Toy Story, produced by Pixar. The process of CGI animation is still very tedious and similar in that sense to traditional animation, and it still adheres to many of the same principles.

A principal difference of CGI Animation compared to traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by 3D modeling, almost like virtual version of stop-motion, though a form of animation that combines the two worlds can be considered to be computer aided animation but on 2D computer drawing (which can be considered close to traditional drawing and sometimes based on it).

The future

Animated humans

Most CGI created films are based on animal characters, monsters, machines or cartoon-like humans. Animation studios are now trying to develop ways of creating realistic-looking humans. Films that have attempted this include Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within in 2001, Final Fantas : Advent Children in 2005, The Polar Express in 2004, and Beowulf in 2007. However, due to the complexity of human body functions, emotions and interactions, this method of animation is rarely used. The more realistic a CG character becomes, the more difficult it is to create the nuances and details of a living person. The creation of hair and clothing that move convincingly with the animated human character is another area of difficulty.

Cel-shaded animation

A type of non-photorealistic rendering designed to make computer graphics appear to be hand-drawn. Cel-shading is often used to mimic the style of a comic book or cartoon. It is a somewhat recent addition to computer graphics, most commonly turning up in console video games. Though the end result of cel-shading has a very simplistic feel like that of hand-drawn animation, the process is complex. The name comes from the clear sheets of acetate, called cels, that are painted on for use in traditional 2D animation. It may be considered a “2.5D” form of animation. True real-time cel-shading was first introduced in 2000 by Sega’s Jet Set Radio for their Dreamcast console. Besides video games, a number of anime have also used this style of animation, such as Freedom Project in 2006.

 

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